This book discusses Tyrš’s body of work on art theory, aesthetics, and criticism in a comprehensive way, placing his ideas in the context of contemporary thought and analysing the main terms he uses. In certain respects, Tyrš’s views remain in alignment with traditional views on the development of art history and have now been superseded. Nevertheless, Tyrš’s contributions represent a unique attempt to provide a consistent understanding of the arts within the social context, demonstrating his effort to go beyond a merely positivist approach. Additionally, Tyrš continually seeks to connect the humanities with the natural sciences, especially with biology and evolutionary theory. A comprehensive portrait of Tyrš’s many essays and other writings, when considered together with his multifaceted public engagement, shows his exceptional social commitment and dedication to democratic and peaceful principles.